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Introduction to the eight systems of traction drive elevators
Sep 05, 2018

The traction drive elevator refers to the elevator driven by the friction of the lifting rope against the drive wheel rope groove of the main machine. Its basic structure can be generally divided into the following eight systems:


(1) Electric drive system. Provide the power of elevator operation, control the speed of elevator operation; mainly consist of electric motor, motor speed control device, power supply system and so on. The 33 motor (motor) converts the electric power into mechanical energy, reduces the speed and increases the torque through the 1 reducer, and drives the 2 traction sheave to rotate or lower the car. The 34 brake can brake the operation.


(2) Traction system. It consists of a traction sheave, a wire rope, a guide wheel, a reverse sheave, etc., which is used to output and transmit power and drive the elevator to run. This is also the main difference between traction drive and forced drive. 8 The traction wire rope drives the car to run by friction with the 2 traction sheaves. The traction ratio of this figure is 1:1, so there is no reverse sheave.


(3) Guidance system. It consists of guide wheels, guide rails, rail brackets, etc., so that the car and counterweight run along the guide rails. The operation is transmitted to the car by the traction machine through the guide wheel, the movement of the car is carried out on the 15 rails, and the 15 rails are fixed by the rail brackets.


(4) Car system. It consists of a car frame and a car body for transporting passengers or cargo.


(5) Door system. It consists of a landing door (hall door), a car door, a door machine, a door lock, etc., and all the landing doors (halls) and car doors are closed before the elevator can run, which is an important safety component. The 13 car door is driven by a 29-door door machine, and the 23-story door is driven by a door knife, and their movement is protected by a door lock.


(6) Counterweight system. It consists of a counterweight and weight compensation device. On the one hand, the counterweight can balance the car and part of the load, on the one hand, the traction force is generated. The weight compensation device is used to balance the weight difference between the car and the counterweight, and to maintain the stability of the load torque when the elevator is running. The 17 counterweights operate in the opposite direction to the car, and the 18 compensation chains compensate for their weight differences. In the absence of a compensation chain, if the car is at the bottom, the weight of the car side and the 8 traction wire rope will be too large, which is not conducive to traction.


(7) Electrical control system. Operate and control the operation of the elevator. It consists of a control cabinet, a position display, an operating device, and a leveling device.


(8) Security protection system. It consists of speed limiter, safety clamp, buffer, door interlock, end station protection device, overspeed protection and other devices to ensure the safe use of the elevator and prevent accidents. The safety protection system is more complicated and comprehensive. Here, the speed limiter and the safety gear are taken as examples. When the car overspeeds due to various reasons, the 5 speed limiter detects the down speed of the car, which will cause the electric switch to operate and cut off the 33 motor power. If the car still accelerates down, the mechanical mechanism of the 5 speed limiter will act to drive the 14 safety gear, and the 14 safety gear will be tightly clamped on the 15 rails, so that the car stops running.


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